Causes of Infertility

Causes of Infertility

With some couples, the infertility is connected only to one factor (low sperm count, blocked fallopian tube), with others it’s the combination of these problems.

Despite all the most modern diagnostic methods, approximately with 10-15% of couples it is not possible to determine the cause of infertility.

The base of successful treatment is as accurate diagnostic as possible.

Male factor of infertility

In the last 20 years, the percentage of men with impaired spermiogramme parameters is increasing.

The male infertility results due to inflammation, surgeries, injuries, oncologic treatment, addictive substances, steroids, exposure to toxic substances.

Male factor is gradually worsening and nowadays forms about 50% of infertility.

Sperm disorders are divided to:

Low sperm count (oligosperm) – less than 15 million sperms per one milliliter of ejaculate.

Cryptosperm – less than 1 million sperms per one milliliter of ejaculate.

Weak sperm mobility (astenosperm) – sperms are unable to reach the ovum.

Poor sperm shape (teratosperm) – due to pathological shape, sperms can’t pierce through the ovum.

Absence of sperms in ejaculate (azoosperm) – the cause is missing sperm production or disorder of its transport (obstructive form – this can be treated by special techniques – microsurgical sperm aspiration).

Sex disorders – problems with ejaculation or impotence (insufficient erection).

Genetic disorders – chromosome disorders.

Female factor of infertility

Ovarian factor (the cause is in ovaries) – mostly caused by hormonal disorders. Follicles can’t mature in ovaries and the ovum is not being released (ovulation).

With increasing age (after 35. year) the quality and count of oocyte is physiologically decreasing. Their quantity is highest after birth, stabilizing during puberty. Healthy woman has 350-400 oocyte in her ovaries after puberty. No new follicles are formed during her life.

Tubarian factor – mechanical (anatomical) type of sterility. It’s caused by obstruction of one or both fallopian tubes (mostly women after gynecological inflammations or with endometriosis), disorders in development or absence of fallopian tubes.

Uterine factor – pathological formations in the uterine cavity (polyp, myom), adhesions in uterine cavity (Asherman’s syndrome) or developmental defects of uterus (septum, insufficient development of uterus or its half). These conditions are treated surgically, in small percentage by medicine.

Endometriosis ­– presence of bearings of endometrium, which leaves or form themselves outside the uterine cavity. The cause is unknown. It is the most diagnosed illness today. Some professionals rank it among civilization diseases. It causes obstructions of fallopian tubes, adhesions and can impair immunological mechanisms – all this negatively influences the process of fertilization and embryo implantation. Endometriosical bearings produce substances which limit sperm mobility.

Immunological factor – immunological antibodies disrupt not only natural sperm mobility but also lead to disruption of fertilization process and can negatively influence the embryo development.

Genetic disorders – disorders in chromosomes or genetics.

Female factor is for last couple of decades constant and is around 30% in occurance.

Combined factor of infertility

Combinations of all above mentioned factors. This factor occurs in 20% of cases.

The base of successful treatment is as accurate diagnostic as possible.

Make your appointment for free consultation